Rebellion Black Seminoles: 1693 - 1938     
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Date Event Trail Link
1693 Spanish Florida offers freedom to British slaves
1725 Fugitive blacks found living with Creeks in Florida spacer
1750 First Seminole band forms on Alachua savannah
1763-84 Seminole country becomes destination for black runaways
1775 England welcomes runaway slaves from America
1776-83 Seminoles steal slaves from British plantations spacer
1787 Cont. Congress tries to recover Florida slaves spacer
1790 Treaty of New York signed with Creeks
1790 Abraham born spacer
1795 Treaty of San Lorenzo ends Spanish edicts of freedom spacer
1812 John Horse born
1812-13 Patriot War
1813 Seminoles settle on Suwannee River spacer
1815 Fugitive slaves hold Negro Fort spacer
1816 U.S. blows up Negro Fort
1817 1st Seminole War officially begins
1818 Seminoles evacuate Suwannee spacer
1818 Jackson drives blacks and Indians from Suwannee
1821 U.S. Agent visits Seminoles
1823 Treaty of Moultrie Creek
1825 Seminole delegation visits Washington D.C.
1825 Abraham emerges as leader
1826 John Horse engages in turtle ruse
1827 Florida makes aiding slave-escapes punishable by death spacer
1829 Andrew Jackson becomes President
1832 Treaty of Payne's Landing initiates removal crisis
1834 Floridians claim 500 Black Seminoles spacer
1834 Osceola leads opposition to removal
1835 2nd Seminole War begins
1835 Seminoles ransack plantations, liberate slaves
1835 Dade's Massacre
1836 John Horse fights valiantly at Wahoo Swamp spacer
1837 Jesup captures Osceola & John Horse under white flag
1837 Seminole leaders escape from Fort Marion
1837 Battle of Okeechobee
1838 Black Seminoles surrender under promise of freedom
1838 Black Seminoles emigrate West with Indians spacer
1839 John Horse returns to Florida as Army scout
1841 Coacoochee surrenders
1841 Joshua Giddings uses war to test "gag rule"
1842 Creeks claim Seminole lands out west
1844 Creeks try to kidnap Black Seminoles in the Indian Territory
1844 Coacoochee leads delegation to Washington
1844 1st assassination attempt on John Horse
1845 New treaty keeps Seminoles under Creek jurisdiction
1845 Jesup brings Seminole case before President
1846 Blacks complete work on Fort Gibson
1848 U.S. "returns" Black Seminoles to slavery
1849 Micanopy dies
1849 200 Seminole allies head for Mexico where slavery is outlawed
1850 Seminole allies cross to freedom in Mexico
1850-51 Comanches attack Black Seminole parties spacer
1850-51 More Black Seminoles flee Indian Territory for Mexico spacer
1851-54 Seminole allies protect Mexico from Apaches & Comanches spacer
1851-59 Texas slavers try to capture Black Seminoles in Mexico spacer
1855 Seminoles defeat Callahan's raid of Texas slavers into Mexico spacer
1857 Coacoochee dies in smallpox epidemic spacer
1859 Black Seminoles move to Laguna de Parras spacer
1864 John Horse serves as colonel in Mexican Army spacer
1865 With end of US Civil War, slave raids into Mexico cease spacer
1865 Black Seminoles return to Nacimiento spacer
1867 Porfirio Diaz confirms Nacimiento grant spacer
1870 Impoverished blacks cross to Texas, seek return to Oklahoma spacer
1870 Army musters Seminole Negro Indian Scouts in Texas spacer
1870 Black Seminoles visit Texas, plan return to Oklahoma spacer
1870-74 US government delays ruling on return of blacks to Oklahoma spacer
1871 John Horse advises Scouts at Fort Duncan spacer
1872 Scout company forms at Fort Clark spacer
1872-1914 Scouts' families settle on Las Moras Creek in Brackettville spacer
1873 Lt. Bullis assumes command of Scouts spacer
1873 Scouts aid Mackenzie raid on Kickapoos spacer
1873-81 Scouts help pacify West Texas frontier spacer
1874 Scouts aid Red River War with Comanches spacer
1875 Scouts save Bullis' life, receive Medal of Honor spacer
1876 "King" Fisher gang threatens Black Seminoles in Texas spacer
1876 Assassins try to kill John Horse in Brackettville spacer
1877 John Horse returns to Nacimiento spacer
1881 Scouts lead last major Indian raid in Texas history spacer
1881 Nacimiento grant is threatened spacer
1881 Texans lionize Lt. Bullis spacer
1882 John Horse plans visit to Dictator Diaz spacer
1882 John Horse travels to Mexico City to protect grant spacerspacer
1882 John Horse dies spacer
1887 Porfirio Diaz protects the Nacimiento land grant spacer
1888 Scouts petition President for Fort Clark reservation spacer
1907 Seminole rolls close spacer
1909 US Army phases out Scouts spacer
1914 Last Scouts disbanded, families forced from Fort Clark spacer
1919 President Carranza recognizes Mascogos' rights to Nacimiento spacer
1935 Foster publishes doctoral research on Black Seminoles spacer
1938 President Cardenas grants Mascogos more land at Nacimiento spacer
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