Rebellion 1849-1856     
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Detail of illustration showing Narciso Lopez captured in Cuba
Detail from "The Apotheosis," a lithograph from 1851 depicting the aftermath of General Narciso Lopez's second failed attempt to invade Cuba and establish a pro-slavery republic friendly to the U.S. Lopez was sponsored by a cadre of pro-Southern expansionists. The detail shows a black Cuban man garrotting the general after his capture. Library of Congress.
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Around the time that Adams seized the Black Seminole leader, the maroon community faced another, more widespread threat: slaveholders in Texas who wanted to annex Northern Mexico.

Throughout this period, there were efforts to colonize new lands for American slavery. From 1849-1851, southerners backed three failed invasions of Cuba by Narciso Lopez, who wanted to liberate Cuba from Spain and reinstitute slavery. In the wake of Lopez’ failures (and execution), a secret southern society, “The Order of the Lone Star,” formed in 1851 with the object of sponsoring more invasions of Cuba and exploring efforts to acquire parts of Mexico. By 1856, expansionists had tried to acquire new slavery territories from New Mexico to Nicaragua. Their goal was to bolster slavery’s political power—also to find new places for economic exploitation. The expansionists were not centrally organized; and their invasions of foreign lands drew as much ire from the U.S. government as from the governments they attacked. Yet everywhere that the covert movements took shape, they found powerful allies among the slaveholding elite.

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Sources: May, Robert E., Manifest Destiny 33-38, 252-262. ©
Part 4, Freedom: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 - Freedom: 1850-1882
+ Cost of Freedom
spacer spacer Arrival
Second Exodus
Border Etiquette
Duval's Desserts
Indian Killers
End of an Era
+ Liberty Foretold
+ Liberty Found
 + Legacy & Conclusion