Rebellion 1859 - 1870     
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Gopher John
John Horse. Engraving by N. Orr for Sprague's 1848 history of the Florida war.
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While details from the period are sparse, memoirs and government reports make it clear that John Horse enjoyed fame throughout the borderlands. As a reward for his military services, he reportedly became a commissioned colonel in the Mexican army. Whether he received the honor for fighting the French or the Apaches remains uncertain. Equally obscure are details of his daily existence. Despite the turmoil of Mexican politics, however, this may have been one of the more secure periods in the maroon leader’s life. By the time emancipation reached Texas on June 19, 1865, John Horse, then about 53, had lived for 15 years in a country without slavery. He was still married to Susan, with whom he would remain until his death. His exploits had won him prestige and fame as a scout—and likely a measure of wealth, at least comparatively speaking. Mexicans and Anglos described encounters in the plains and mountains with El Coronel Juan Caballo. He was often seen riding his favorite white horse, “American,” who was mounted with a silver-plated saddle and a gold-plated pommel in the shape of a horse’s head.

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Sources: Porter “Farewell to John Horse” 268, 273 ff 25.©
Part 4, Freedom: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 - Freedom: 1850-1882
+ Cost of Freedom
+ Liberty Foretold
+ Liberty Found
Los Mascogos
Fort Clark
 + Legacy & Conclusion