Rebellion September 18, 1823     
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Treaty of Moultrie Creek, signature page
Treaty of Moultrie Creek, signature page. Signatures include William P. Duval, James Gadsden, Bernard Segui, Neamathla, John Blunt, Tuski Hajo, Mulatto King, Emathlocha, and Econchictimico. Dated September 18, 1823. Florida Photographic Collection.
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Moultrie Creek slide ticker

The first official push to return runaways took place under the 1823 Treaty of Moultrie Creek. The treaty's primary goal was to move the Seminoles onto a reservation. During negotiations coordinated by Captain Gadsden, the U.S. used bribes and promises of rations to convince six leading chiefs to exchange their fertile homelands along the Alachua savannah for an unseen reservation far to the South. Unfortunately, the allotment of reservation land fueled resentment on all sides.

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Sources: Sprague Origin 20-25, ASPIA 2: 433-39, Mahon 42-49.
Part 1, Early Years: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 - Early Years: 1832-1838
+ World at Birth
+ Encroaching America
+ A New Country
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Moultrie Creek
Slave Raiders
Gopher John
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion