Rebellion Black Seminoles: 1693 - 1938     
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spacer Timelines > Black Seminole history & background, general

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Date Event Trail Link
1693 Spanish Florida offers freedom to British slaves
1725 Fugitive blacks found living with Creeks in Florida spacer
1750 First Seminole band forms on Alachua savannah
1763-84 Seminole country becomes destination for black runaways spacer
1812 John Horse born
1812-13 Patriot War: Blacks and Seminoles repel Georgian invaders
1816 U.S. blows up Negro Fort
1817 1st Seminole War officially begins
1825 Abraham emerges as leader
1832 Treaty of Payne's Landing initiates removal crisis
1835 2nd Seminole War begins
1838 Blacks Seminoles surrender under promise of freedom
1838 Black Seminoles emigrate West with Seminole Indians
1844 Creeks try to kidnap Black Seminoles in the Indian Territory
1845 New treaty keeps Seminoles under Creek jurisdiction
1848 U.S. "returns" Black Seminoles to slavery
1849 200 Seminole allies flee to Mexico where slavery is outlawed
1850 Mexico gives Black Seminoles own name, los mascogos spacer
1851-54 Seminole allies protect Mexico from Apaches & Comanches spacer
1851-59 Texas slavers try to capture Black Seminoles in Mexico spacer
1859 Black Seminoles move to Laguna de Parras spacer
1864 John Horse serves as colonel in Mexican Army spacer
1870 Impoverished blacks cross to Texas, seek return to Oklahoma spacer
1870 Army musters Seminole Negro Indian Scouts in Texas spacer
1872 Scout company forms at Fort Clark spacer
1872-1914 Scouts' families settle on Las Moras Creek in Brackettville spacer
1873-81 Scouts help pacify West Texas frontier spacer
1877 John Horse returns to Nacimiento spacer
1881 Scouts lead last major Indian raid in Texas history spacer
1881 Nacimiento grant is threatened spacer
1882 John Horse travels to Mexico City to protect grant spacer
1882 John Horse dies spacer
1887 Porfirio Diaz protects the Nacimiento land grant spacer
1914 Last Scouts disbanded, families forced from Fort Clark spacer
1919 President Carranza recognizes Mascogos' rights to Nacimiento spacer
1938 President Cardenas grants Mascogos more land at Nacimiento spacer
Black Seminoles, general
Black Seminoles, detailed 
John Horse's life
U.S. events
Colonial events
African Americans
Slave uprisings
Native Americans
Mexican events