Rebellion 1873 - 1881     
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John Lapham Bullis and Ranald Mackenzie
John Lapham Bullis and Ranald Mackenzie. National Archives.
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Their most famous exploits took place under John L. Bullis and Ranald S. Mackenzie, men who both became generals based on actions during the Texas Indian Wars that drew heavily on the skills of the Black Seminoles. Under Bullis and Mackenzie, Black Seminole scouts engaged in 26 lengthy expeditions against hostiles from 1873-1881. Their actions were especially critical to the famous Remolino raid in 1873, when they helped track and attack the Mexican-based Kickapoos, whom the Black Seminoles knew from Nacimiento. The expedition turned the tide in the Indian wars by demonstrating that Mexico could no longer be an automatic safe haven for raiding parties.

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Sources: Foster 47, Wallace 92-111.
Part 4, Freedom: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 - Freedom: 1850-1882
+ Cost of Freedom
+ Liberty Foretold
+ Liberty Found
Los Mascogos
Fort Clark
 + Legacy & Conclusion


See other online resources on the history of the scouts