Rebellion 1790 - 1796     
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Secret articles from the Treaty of New York, 1790
Secret articles appended to the Treaty of New York (1790), under which President George Washington contracted with Creek Indians to return runaway slaves living among the Seminoles. National Archives.
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American slaveholders, meanwhile, started to complain bitterly of Seminole interference with their slaves, just as the English had once complained of Spanish meddling. Georgians voiced their concerns in one of the first treaties in U.S. history, the Treaty of New York (1790), and in the subsequent Treaty of Colerain (1796). In both, the U.S. government tried to compel friendly Creek Indians to recover black fugitives from Florida. This was done under the pretense that the slaves had actually escaped to the Creeks. The fiction did not sit well with the Seminoles, who saw it correctly as a ruse to capture their black allies.*

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Sources: Miller Treaties 2: 344, Twyman 78-79, Native American Treaty 9.
Background: Outline  l  Images

*Creek attempts to recover the Black Seminoles would lead to six decades of inter-tribal strife, culminating in one of the climactic events of John Horse's life and Black Seminole history.

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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 - Background: 1693-1812
spacer spacer African Connections
Spanish Influence
British Reaction
The Seminoles
Section Conclusion
 + Early Years: 1832-1838
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion


Secret articles of the Treaty of New York

Excerpts from the slave-catching treaties with the Creeks