Rebellion December 1848 - January 1849     
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Micanopy, the Seminole chief who showed great favor toward the maroons from his early years in Florida through the tensions of the Indian Territory. Hand-colored lithograph from the McKenney-Hall History of the Indian tribes of North America (1858), after an 1825 painting from life by Charles Bird King.
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The blacks were not handed over immediately, but that winter they received another blow -- the death of Micanopy. From Florida to the West, the chief had been a great friend to the maroons. While Micanopy lived, Coacoochee and the traditionalists maintained a measure of official power. Shortly after his death, however, Coacoochee lost his bid to become head chief. Instead, the tribe selected Jim Jumper, the leader of the pro-Creek, pro-slavery faction. Jumper was no friend to the Black Seminoles. In fact, he had been working in tandem with Marcellus Duval to obtain titles to them and reduce them to chattel slavery.

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Sources: Foreman Five 257, 260.
Part 3, Exile: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 - Exile: 1838-1850
+ Shifting Alliances
+ American Justice
+ A New Frontier
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New Frontier
Cross to Freedom
New Horizon
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion