Rebellion 1859 - 1870     
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Illustration of Parras circa 1861 from Samuel E. Chamberlain's My Confession: An extraordinary first-person account of a young man in the war with Mexico. Edited and annotated by William H. Goetzmann. Published by the Texas State Historical Association. Summerlee Foundation.
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During the years before and after the U.S. Civil War (1859-1870), the Black Seminoles under John Horse lived in the Mexican state of Parras. The capital seat was a garden city, known then (as now) as a land of eternal springtime. In theory the Black Seminoles moved to Parras as a precaution against Texas slavers. Rumors were circulating in 1859 that filibusters in Texas were once again planning an invasion to seize runaway slaves from Mexico. While the threat of slave raiders was the nominal reason for the move, Mexican authorities had other motives for relocating the maroons. In a region of Indian raids and civil war, their military services were valuable.

Unfortunately for historians, the Parras archives burned during the Mexican Revolution in 1911. As a result, many details of the Black Seminole period in Parras remain obscure.

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Sources: Mulroy 88-89, Austin Texas State Gazette February 29, 1859 as cited in Stamp 213, Tyler 9-11.
Part 4, Freedom: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 - Freedom: 1850-1882
+ Cost of Freedom
+ Liberty Foretold
+ Liberty Found
Los Mascogos
Fort Clark
 + Legacy & Conclusion