Rebellion July – October 1850     
spacerHomespacer spacerOverviewspacer spacerTrail Narrativespacer spacerHighlightsspacer spacerMapsspacer spacerResourcesspacer spacerImagesspacer spacer
Fort Gibson Commissary
Commissary of Fort Gibson, one of the buildings Black Seminoles constructed for the U.S. Army in the Oklahoma Indian Territory, completed in 1845. Library of Congress.
View an image enlargement
Previous slide Next slide
Second Exodus slide tickerslide tickerslide tickerslide ticker

When John Horse fled the Indian Territory in 1849, four-fifths of the Black Seminoles remained behind. These 400 members of the community stayed for a range of reasons, most likely including fear of attempting the exodus, skepticism about their prospects in Mexico, and ties to individual Seminole masters. Unfortunately for those who stayed, black-Indian relations became more tense in the wake of John Horse’s departure. A faction of Creek and Seminole slaveholders, incensed by the flight, continued to petition the Army to disarm the remaining maroons.

Previous slidespacerspacer

Sources: Littlefield Africans and Seminoles 146-150, Foster 42-43, Porter Black 130-31. ©
Part 4, Freedom: Outline  l Images
spacer spacer
 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 - Freedom: 1850-1882
+ Cost of Freedom
spacer spacer Arrival
Second Exodus
Border Etiquette
Duval's Desserts
Indian Killers
End of an Era
+ Liberty Foretold
+ Liberty Found
 + Legacy & Conclusion