When John Horse fled the Indian Territory in 1849, four-fifths of the Black
Seminoles remained behind. These 400 members of the community stayed for a range
of reasons, most likely including fear of attempting the exodus, skepticism
about their prospects in Mexico, and ties to individual Seminole masters.
Unfortunately for those who stayed, black-Indian relations became more tense in
the wake of John Horse’s departure. A faction of Creek and Seminole
slaveholders, incensed by the flight, continued to petition the Army to disarm
the remaining maroons.
Littlefield Africans and Seminoles 146-150, Foster
42-43, Porter Black 130-31.