Rebellion January 4, 1845     
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Map showing Creek and Seminole reservations in 1872, based largely on divisions outlined in the 1845 Creek-Seminole treaty
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While Jesup pressed the case of Coacoochee and John Horse, the pro-slavery Creeks found their own allies in Washington among Southern lawmakers. By 1845, lobbying on both sides resulted in a new treaty between the Creeks and the Seminoles. Though perhaps not immediately apparent, the treaty was decidedly tilted toward the South. The government proposed that the Seminoles could have their own lands as originally promised, but within Creek territory, ultimately under Creek jurisdiction. The government would not create a sovereign Seminole nation. 

The treaty made no direct mention of Black Seminoles, negroes, or slaves. Reading it today, one would have almost no idea that its underlying issue was slavery.

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Sources: United States Indian Affairs 2: 407, Native American Treaty 236, Giddings Exiles 321.
Part 3, Exile: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 - Exile: 1838-1850
+ Shifting Alliances
+ American Justice
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"The Hero"
Federal Allies
Southern Enemies
Marcellus Duval
Frontier Justice
American Justice
+ A New Frontier
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion


Giddings and Foreman analyze the hidden issue behind the treaty

Historical document:
Complete text of the 1845 treaty