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Rebellion May 28, 1838     
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Encampment of the 1st infantry, painted by Seth Eastman
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"Encampment of the 1st Infantry at Sarasota, Florida." 1841 watercolor by Seth Eastman. While stationed in Florida, Eastman may well have met John Horse, who served as lead guide and interpreter for the commanding general William Worth. Peabody Museum, Harvard University.
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John Horse reached the Indian Territory in May of 1838. Almost immediately he agreed to return back east. The government was hiring Indian and black interpreters to convince the remaining militants in Florida to emigrate. With his linguistic skills and knowledge of the region, John Horse was considered an ideal candidate. Within a year, he had returned to Florida as an Army scout.

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Sources: A&NC 6: 315, Foreman Indian 367-68, Porter Black 97.
Part 3, Exile: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 - Exile: 1838-1850
+ Shifting Alliances
spacer spacer Enemy to Ally
Atrocities
National Debate
Prosperity
Emigration
Creek Tensions
Endangered Alliance
+ American Justice
+ A New Frontier
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion