Rebellion May 17, 1826     
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Abraham pictured with the Billy Bowlegs delegation
Abraham (center, standing) pictured with the Billy Bowlegs delegation to Washington in 1853, as published in The Illustrated London News, May 23, 1853. (This engraving is sometimes identified as a depiction of the delegation that travelled to Washington in 1826.) Florida Photographic Collection.
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Hicks' words were translated by the delegation's black interpreter, Abraham. By 1826, Abraham was emerging as one of the most important Black Seminoles. Within three years, he would be described as their leader, the "head of about five hundred negroes, of whom he is legislator, judge, and executioner." Over the next twelve years Abraham would play a decisive, sometimes controversial role in the life of John Horse and his people.

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Sources: Sprague Origin 100, Cohen 239.
Part 1, Early Years: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 - Early Years: 1832-1838
+ World at Birth
+ Encroaching America
+ A New Country
spacer spacer Annexation
Moultrie Creek
Slave Raiders
Gopher John
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion