Rebellion 1857-1859     
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Map of Coahuila showing Nacimiento and Parras
Map of the Mexican state of Coahuila showing 300-mile distance from Nacimiento to Parras, where the Black Seminoles settled from 1859-1870. From Atlas geografico, estadistico e historico de la Republica Mexicana, formado por Antonio Garcia y Cubas. David Rumsey Map Collection,
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End of an Era

In the two years after Coacoochee’s death, the African-Seminole alliance almost completely deteriorated. Seminole Indians under their new chief, Lion, tried to subject the blacks to Indian leadership, but the blacks refused. Seminole Indians began to consider returning to the Indian Territory. In 1856 in the U.S., a new treaty finally authorized a sovereign Seminole nation separate from the Creeks. For Seminole Indians in Mexico, this made prospects of a return especially appealing. In 1859, Lion led 50 destitute Seminole Indians back to the Indian Territory.

The Black Seminoles, meanwhile, were facing renewed threats from Texas-based slaving parties. To end the threat of invasion, the Mexican government relocated the maroons far south of Nacimiento in the region of La Laguna de Parras. Here they received land, provisions, and help establishing their community. The blacks were now 300 miles south of the remaining Seminole Indians.

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Sources: Mulroy 75, Porter Black 144. ©
Part 4, Freedom: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 - Freedom: 1850-1882
+ Cost of Freedom
spacer spacer Arrival
Second Exodus
Border Etiquette
Duval's Desserts
Indian Killers
End of an Era
+ Liberty Foretold
+ Liberty Found
 + Legacy & Conclusion