Rebellion 1790 - 1810     
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Four forces behind the formation of the Black Seminoles
Four forces behind the formation of the Black Seminoles: fugitive slaves, Spain, the Seminole Indians, and the American Revolution. The individual subjects, artists and collections for each of these images are noted in subsequent story panels.
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Background: 1693 - 1812

Almost a generation before John Horse's birth, in the early 1800s, a new community was just emerging in Florida, a group of free and fugitive blacks allied with Seminole Indians. Described variously as "Seminole Negroes," Muskogees, maroons, and black Indians, they would come to be known as the Black Seminoles. Like other New World communities, the Black Seminoles forged their identity in a crucible of war, slavery, and hemispheric conflict. They rose to prominence after 1800, but their emergence was rooted in the very founding and settling of North America -- and in the contradictory promise of American freedom.

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Background: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 - Background: 1693-1812
spacer spacer African Connections
Spanish Influence
British Reaction
The Seminoles
Section Conclusion
 + Early Years: 1832-1838
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion

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