Rebellion Mid-1850s     
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Micanopy and Ben, Seminole and Black Seminole
Micanopy, head chief of the Seminoles, from the 1838 painting by Catlin, and Ben Bruno, Black Seminole interpreter, from an 1858 engraving. Smithsonian American Art Museum and Florida Photographic Collection.
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The military alliance between Africans and Seminoles had always been pragmatic. From Florida to the Indian Territory, the threat of enslavement had driven the maroons to seek protection from individual Indian leaders, who in turn derived prestige and power from the association. In Mexico, the circumstances had changed. Legally free, the maroons were able to establish their own community for the first time without the overt threat of enslavement. They still had to stave off American filibusterers and Texas Rangers. But with the help of the Mexican government, which also sought to prevent American incursions, this had not proven to be a problem.

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Sources: Mulroy 86.
Part 4, Freedom: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 - Freedom: 1850-1882
+ Cost of Freedom
spacer spacer Arrival
Second Exodus
Border Etiquette
Duval's Desserts
Indian Killers
End of an Era
+ Liberty Foretold
+ Liberty Found
 + Legacy & Conclusion