Seminole subagent Marcellus Duval continued to scheme for the capture of the
Black Seminole refugees in Mexico. When his agent Warren Adams proved
ineffective, Duval decided to pursue the maroons himself. In late 1852, he
arranged for administrative leave from his post in Indian Territory and headed
for the Texas border.
The agent had built up considerable enmity with the commanders at Fort Gibson,
who were convinced Duval had been engaged in slave raids against the maroons. In
late 1852, the U.S. Secretary of War came to the same conclusion. The secretary
recommended that Duval be relieved of his post. Word reached Duval in April 1853
in Austin, before he could reach the border. After a flurry of protest letters
fired off to newspapers and politicians, the former Indian agent dropped from
the pages of history and from the lives of the Black Seminoles. The maroons had
survived another pro-slavery foe.