Rebellion 1859 - 1870     
spacerHomespacer spacerOverviewspacer spacerTrail Narrativespacer spacerHighlightsspacer spacerMapsspacer spacerResourcesspacer spacerImagesspacer spacer
Siege of Puebla
"Guerre du Mexique, siège et prise de Puébla." Lithograph of the siege of Puebla during the war of Mexico with France, circa 1863. Library of Congress.
View an image enlargement
Previous slide Next slide
Los Mascogos slide tickerslide tickerslide ticker

At the same time that the fight for black liberty was reaching a climax in the United States, in Mexico, America’s most successful black freedom fighters were persevering through another series of violent civil upheavals in their new country. Like the U.S., Mexico was wracked by civil conflicts. John Horse had practiced neutrality in the affairs of his adopted country, but both the War of the Reform (1858-1861) and the War of the Intervention (1861-1864) tested his approach. By 1864, Mexico was so weak that France was able to install a foreign emperor, Maximilian I of Austria. According to Black Seminole traditions, John Horse forsook neutrality to help expel the French, fighting on the side of the Mexican patriot Benito Juárez.

Previous slidespacerspacer

Sources: Mulroy 108, Porter Black 168. ©
Part 4, Freedom: Outline  l Images
spacer spacer
 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 - Freedom: 1850-1882
+ Cost of Freedom
+ Liberty Foretold
+ Liberty Found
Los Mascogos
Fort Clark
 + Legacy & Conclusion