End of an Era
By the mid-1850s, the Mexican authorities in Santa Rosa were favorably
impressed by the Seminoles and Black Seminoles, reporting that they were
“industrious, warlike and desirous of education and religious instruction for
But the traditional African-Seminole alliance was under strain. The blacks had
been quicker than their Indian allies to establish themselves as farmers and
ranchers. Coacoochee and his immediate followers, in contrast, relied more
heavily for income on the plunder and government rewards they could earn as
border guards. In 1853, the Indians led their second expedition without black
support. Maroons remained at home to protect the settlement at Nacimiento.
Reports of the Committee 410, Mulroy 86.