Rebellion Mid-1850s     
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Color photoprint of Mexican Hacienda, circa 1880-1897
A Mexican hacienda, location unknown,  photomechanical print of a photograph by William Henry Jackson, produced between 1884 and 1900. Library of Congress.
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By the mid-1850s, the Mexican authorities in Santa Rosa were favorably impressed by the Seminoles and Black Seminoles, reporting that they were “industrious, warlike and desirous of education and religious instruction for their families.”

But the traditional African-Seminole alliance was under strain. The blacks had been quicker than their Indian allies to establish themselves as farmers and ranchers. Coacoochee and his immediate followers, in contrast, relied more heavily for income on the plunder and government rewards they could earn as border guards. In 1853, the Indians led their second expedition without black support. Maroons remained at home to protect the settlement at Nacimiento.

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Sources: Reports of the Committee 410, Mulroy 86. ©
Part 4, Freedom: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 - Freedom: 1850-1882
+ Cost of Freedom
spacer spacer Arrival
Second Exodus
Border Etiquette
Duval's Desserts
Indian Killers
End of an Era
+ Liberty Foretold
+ Liberty Found
 + Legacy & Conclusion