Rebellion June 1850     
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Holata Mico, or Billy Bowlegs
Seminole Indian chief Holata Mico, or Billy Bowlegs, 1852, with whom the black leader Jim Bowlegs was associated. At the time of John Horse's exodus in 1849, Jim Bowlegs was in Florida attempting to help the U.S. Army negotiate the emigration of Billy Bowlegs. Florida Photographic Collection.
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Meanwhile, the maroons in the Indian Territory were increasingly vulnerable to slaving parties, which Duval made little attempt to prevent and most likely encouraged. The situation reached a crisis point in June when Creek slavers kidnapped one of the most prominent black leaders, Jim Bowlegs. Gen. Belknap rescued Bowlegs, but the maroon evidently had seen enough of Arkansas. A short time after his capture, a party of Creek and white slavers rode on the black settlement at Wewoka “to take forcible possession of a number of Negroes.” Many blacks were taken prisoner, but according to Capt. F.T. Dent,

A large number of the Negroes [sic] about one hundred and eighty had not been taken, and were "en route" for Texas, armed and bidding defiance to any person or persons who shall attempt to take them. This party I am informed is commanded by Jim Bowlegs, a slave of Billy Bowlegs, now in Florida.

A second major exodus to Mexico, reportedly larger than John Horse’s, was underway.

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Sources: Foreman Five 262-63, “Report relative to the seizure of certain Negroes in the Seminole Nation by Creeks & others, by F. T. Dent, Fort Gibson, July 15, 1850” cited in House Doc. 15, 33rd Cong., 2nd Sess.: 17-18, Littlefield Africans and Seminoles 150. ©
Part 4, Freedom: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 - Freedom: 1850-1882
+ Cost of Freedom
spacer spacer Arrival
Second Exodus
Border Etiquette
Duval's Desserts
Indian Killers
End of an Era
+ Liberty Foretold
+ Liberty Found
 + Legacy & Conclusion