Rebellion 1851-1855     
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Emigrants Attacked by Comanches, by Seth Eastman
Detail from "Emigrants Attacked by the Comanches," steel engraving by Captain Seth Eastman, published in 1853 in Mary Eastman's The American Aboriginal Port Folio. Digital copy from The Illustrating Traveler, Yale Library.
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While the Seminole allies helped fend off Texas filibusterers who entertained dreams of empire, their main function for Mexico was to fight Indians. From 1851-1855, the Seminole allies served the Mexican government in multiple engagements against hostile Indians. Comanche and Apache parties had been particularly active when the Seminoles first arrived. During 1851 alone, Comanches and Lipan Apaches launched more than 94 incursions into northern Mexico, killing 63 Mexicans, kidnapping and wounding many more, and stealing much livestock. In response, the Mexican government ordered the Seminole allies to join Mexican colonists tracking the raiders along the Texas border and west toward Laguna de Jaco and Laguna de Tlahualilo.

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Sources: Mulroy 68-73, Reports of the Committee 325, 408.
Part 4, Freedom: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 - Freedom: 1850-1882
+ Cost of Freedom
spacer spacer Arrival
Second Exodus
Border Etiquette
Duval's Desserts
Indian Killers
End of an Era
+ Liberty Foretold
+ Liberty Found
 + Legacy & Conclusion