Rebellion 1765     
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Mico Chlucco, the Long Warrior, by Bartram
"Mico Chlucco, the Long Warrior." This eighteenth-century engraving by James Trenchard copied the original drawing by William Bartram,  which is the first known depiction of a Seminole Indian. Florida Photographic Collection.
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British agents first described Cowkeeper's people as Seminoles sometime between 1765 and 1771. The British understood the term as a variation on cimarron,* the same word that the Spanish used for runaway slaves. Loosely translated as "runaway" or "wild," the title identified the Florida Indians as breakaway Creeks. Seminoles have always preferred to think of themselves as "emigrants" or "pioneers," rather than runaways. Today, Seminole tribal historians say that istÓ siminolÓ is a Muskogee phrase for the "free people," meaning that the Seminoles were never subject to European domination.

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Sources: Sturtevant "Creek" 105, Wright Creeks 106, Mahon 7, Simmons 54-55, Seminole Tribe "History". ©
Background: Outline  l  Images

*English speakers did not hold spelling in high esteem in the 1700s, which might explain the phonetic path from Drake's "Symerons" to Stuart's "Seminolies" two centuries later.

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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 - Background: 1693-1812
spacer spacer African Connections
Spanish Influence
British Reaction
The Seminoles
Section Conclusion
 + Early Years: 1832-1838
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion


Did the ancestors of the Seminoles escape European domination?