Rebellion 1693     
spacerHomespacer spacerOverviewspacer spacerTrail Narrativespacer spacerHighlightsspacer spacerMapsspacer spacerResourcesspacer spacerImagesspacer spacer
DeBry engraving of the Timucuas worshiping a French column
"The Natives of Florida Worship the Column Erected by the Commander on His First Voyage," engraving by Theodore DeBry based on the drawings of Jacques LeMoyne, from LeMoyne's 1554 expedition to Florida.  Indians of North America - Theodore DeBry Copper Plate Engravings.
Previous slide Next slide
Did the ancestors of the Seminoles escape European domination?

Back to main trail

Historically, some precursors of the Seminoles may have avoided European domination, but colonial tensions definitely shaped the evolution of the tribe. From 1585 to 1763, few Southeastern tribes could escape the consequences of rivalries between England, Spain, and France. 

Except for the Mikasukis, most of the tribes that contributed to the formation of the Seminoles were allied with European superpowers at one time or another.

Among the smaller groups, the Yamasees conducted slave raids for the English (before turning on England when the Brits unwisely tried to enslave them in 1715). The Yuchis and Apalachees, sometimes known as the mission-based Indians, were historical allies of the Spanish.

Of the major groups that became known as Seminoles, the Alachua band fought as British allies beginning around 1738, reconciling with Spain only after 1785. The Apalachicola bands, in contrast, were historically allied with Spain. Distinct from both of these, the Mikasukis, who were the last major tribe to enter the Seminole fold, had a history of avoiding European intrigues.

In sum, the pre-cursors of the Seminoles may have avoided outright subjection to the European powers, but all of them aside from the Mikasukis had extensive historical contacts and alliances with the colonial superpowers. Notably, the Seminoles of Florida today trace their lineage most directly to the Mikasukis. This justifies their claims of having historically avoided European subjection. The Seminole nation of Oklahoma includes larger strains of the Alachua and Apalachicola bands.

Previous slidespacerspacer

Sources: Sturtevant Creeks 100-7, Mahon 3-4.
Background: Outline  l  Images
spacer spacer
 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 - Background: 1693-1812
spacer spacer African Connections
Spanish Influence
British Reaction
The Seminoles
Section Conclusion
 + Early Years: 1832-1838
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion

Back to main trail >>