Rebellion April 1846     
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Commissary at Fort Gibson
The old stone commissary at Fort Gibson, one of the structures completed by the Black Seminoles in 1845. Historic American Buildings Survey, Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, HABS, OKLA,51-FOGIB,1D-.
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When John Horse returned from Washington, he found scores of black laborers and their families working at Fort Gibson under the protection of the Army. Blacks were in the process of building the old stone commissary and other masonry structures at the fort. Still visible today, these buildings pay stoic tribute to the endurance of the maroons during a difficult time.

The wooden beams and stone bricks also hint at another story -- a fascinating social relationship that was taking shape on the Plains.

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Sources: Foreman Five 257, Mulroy 42.
Part 3, Exile: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 - Exile: 1838-1850
+ Shifting Alliances
+ American Justice
spacer spacer Appeals for Help
"The Hero"
Federal Allies
Southern Enemies
Marcellus Duval
Frontier Justice
American Justice
+ A New Frontier
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion