Rebellion 1846 - 1849     
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Slaves driven to a southern market, 1842
"Gang of Slaves journeying to be sold in a southern market," engraving by William Henry Brooke for the 1842 book Slave States of America. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZ62-108055.
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Duval's actions were as dangerous as his words. Under the Seminole subagent's watch, slaving parties passed freely over the reservation -- Creek and Seminole parties, but also white speculators from Arkansas. Despite the Army's best efforts, a number of Black Seminoles were captured. Well-known victims included John Horse's sister, Juana, who lost two of her children to Cyrus Hardridge, a notorious Creek slaver.

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Sources: Porter Black 120, Littlefield Seminoles 108-10.
Part 3, Exile: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 - Exile: 1838-1850
+ Shifting Alliances
+ American Justice
spacer spacer Appeals for Help
"The Hero"
Federal Allies
Southern Enemies
Marcellus Duval
Frontier Justice
American Justice
+ A New Frontier
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion