Rebellion 1844     
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U.S. Indian Agent, digital rendering
Contemporary rendering based on an 1860s photograph of a U.S. Indian Agent. There is no known image of Marcellus Duval, the agent to the Seminoles in the 1840s.
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Marcellus Duval slide tickerslide tickerslide ticker

The southern grip on the Black Seminoles tightened irreversibly in 1844 with the appointment of subagent Marcellus Duval. An ardent slaveholder from South Carolina, Duval clashed continually with the officers at Fort Gibson. When he learned that a colonel was leading Sunday school classes and teaching Black Seminoles to read, he said simply, "Every sensible man can see the evil of it."

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Sources: Brown 66-67, Lancaster 70.
Part 3, Exile: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 - Exile: 1838-1850
+ Shifting Alliances
+ American Justice
spacer spacer Appeals for Help
"The Hero"
Federal Allies
Southern Enemies
Marcellus Duval
Frontier Justice
American Justice
+ A New Frontier
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion