Rebellion May 1845     
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Views of Washington City, 1849
"Views of Washington City," at the time of John Horse's visit. Composite of views of twenty buildings from the portico of the Capitol, published and sold by Casimir Bohn, circa 1849. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, LC-USZC4-1797.
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John Horse did not last long as a servant, but he did pass the entire winter in D.C. He sought to recover a thousand dollars in back pay for his services in Florida, plus compensation for 90 head of cattle he had lost in the war. Above all, however, he tried to press on General Jesup the desperation of the Black Seminoles. The government had promised his people freedom, yet slavers threatened them daily. The blacks needed a secure homeland. To find one, he told Jesup, they were willing to relocate just about anywhere -- Arkansas, Florida, even Africa.

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Sources: Porter Black 116-17, Littlefield Seminoles 106-7, 121.
Part 3, Exile: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 - Exile: 1838-1850
+ Shifting Alliances
+ American Justice
spacer spacer Appeals for Help
"The Hero"
Federal Allies
Southern Enemies
Marcellus Duval
Frontier Justice
American Justice
+ A New Frontier
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion