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Rebellion January 1836     
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Treatment representing Black Seminole warrior
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Black Seminole warrior. At the outset, Abraham functioned as lead commander of the blacks. Other leading warriors included John Caesar, July, and August. Contemporary rendering based on 19th-century engraving of Ben Bruno, a Seminole Negro interpreter.
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The number of black allies fluctuated throughout the conflict. Census data indicated 800 Black Seminoles before the war. Of these, officers counted a nucleus of 250 armed black warriors once hostilities began. Plantation runaways quickly augmented the black population, however, making estimates hard to gauge. It is believed that somewhere between 900-1800 blacks were allied with the Seminoles at the heights of the conflict.* The Army counted 500 Black Seminoles by war's end, after hundreds had died, been captured, or returned to plantation slavery.

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Sources: Sprague Origin 19, 97, Littlefield Seminoles 12, Porter Negro 46, 240.
Part 2, War: Outline  l  Images

*As with all slave uprisings, only a portion of the new recruits would have been armed and organized.
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 - War: 1832-1838
+ Prelude to War
+ Revenge
spacer spacer War Erupts
"Massacre"
Withlacoochee
Key Actors
Florida
Slave Uprising
Army Response
National Mood
Distractions
Seminole Success
+ Deceit
+ Liberty or Death
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion