Rebellion January 1836     
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Treatment representing Black Seminole warrior
Black Seminole warrior. At the outset, Abraham functioned as lead commander of the blacks. Other leading warriors included John Caesar, July, and August. Contemporary rendering based on 19th-century engraving of Ben Bruno, a Seminole Negro interpreter.
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The number of black allies fluctuated throughout the conflict. Census data indicated 800 Black Seminoles before the war. Of these, officers counted a nucleus of 250 armed black warriors once hostilities began. Plantation runaways quickly augmented the black population, however, making estimates hard to gauge. It is believed that somewhere between 900-1800 blacks were allied with the Seminoles at the heights of the conflict.* The Army counted 500 Black Seminoles by war's end, after hundreds had died, been captured, or returned to plantation slavery.

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Sources: Sprague Origin 19, 97, Littlefield Seminoles 12, Porter Negro 46, 240.
Part 2, War: Outline  l  Images

*As with all slave uprisings, only a portion of the new recruits would have been armed and organized.
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 - War: 1832-1838
+ Prelude to War
+ Revenge
spacer spacer War Erupts
Key Actors
Slave Uprising
Army Response
National Mood
Seminole Success
+ Deceit
+ Liberty or Death
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion