Rebellion 1821     
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James Gadsden
James Gadsden, aide-de-camp to General Jackson during the Florida campaign of 1818. Gadsden played a later role in the history of the Seminoles by negotiating the Treaty of Payne's Landing (1832). He is known mainly for negotiating the Gadsden Purchase while serving as ambassador to Mexico in 1853. Photo of Claribel Jett's painting. Florida Photographic Collection.
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In the wake of the First Seminole War, refugees flooded south toward Angola, causing Captain James Gadsden to describe the region as "the last rallying spot of the disaffected negroes and Indians." Gadsden suggested erecting a military post from which the U.S. could destroy the black and Indian settlements. General Jackson recommended the plan to the President, but a delay in the official transfer of Florida kept all schemes on hold. Meanwhile, the Governor of Georgia was contemplating his own raid. After meeting with Jackson's close ally, Creek chief William McIntosh, the Governor noted,

"I have it in contemplation to send McIntosh with a Party of warriors to bring away all the Negroes."

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Sources: Brown "Sarrazota," Doster 2: 231.
Part 1, Early Years: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 - Early Years: 1832-1838
+ World at Birth
+ Encroaching America
+ A New Country
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Moultrie Creek
Slave Raiders
Gopher John
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion