Rebellion April 1849     
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Wewoka, detail from 1894 map of Oklahoma
Detail of Wewoka from "Map of the Indian and Oklahoma territories, 1894," compiled from the official records of the General Land Office and other sources by Rand McNally and Company. Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division, LC Railroad maps, 288.
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Wewoka slide ticker

John Horse had escaped the strongest prison in Florida, but he could not escape the U.S. legal system.

When the April deadline approached, the Black Seminoles finally left the protection of the fort. They refused, however, to settle near the Indians who were claiming them. Instead, under John Horse's leadership, most of the blacks settled at Wewoka Creek, "barking waters." There, they founded an all-black community on the site of the present-day town of Wewoka. (Wewoka is now the home of the Seminole Nation of Oklahoma.)

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Sources: Foreman Five 258-59, Porter Black 126.
Part 3, Exile: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 - Exile: 1838-1850
+ Shifting Alliances
+ American Justice
+ A New Frontier
spacer spacer Dark Prospects
New Frontier
Cross to Freedom
New Horizon
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion