Rebellion July - December 1848     
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Fort Gibson, headquarters
Headquarters at Fort Gibson, where by 1848 Black Seminoles had aided in construction of a majority of the military buildings. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, HABS, OKLA,51-FOGIB,1C-1.
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Defying national orders, the Army tacitly supported the blacks. Officers were told to disarm the maroons and return them to Seminole owners. The officers stalled. Over the summer, they used procedural tactics to delay handing over the 286 blacks who claimed freedom under Jesup's proclamation. In November, the company commander even brought additional blacks under Army protection, including many not covered by the proclamation.

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Sources: Foreman Five 257-60, Mulroy 46, Littlefield Seminoles 127.
Part 3, Exile: Outline  l Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 + War: 1832-1838
 - Exile: 1838-1850
+ Shifting Alliances
+ American Justice
+ A New Frontier
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New Frontier
Cross to Freedom
New Horizon
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion