Rebellion 1800 - 1835     
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Map showing Gullah and Geechee country

The Gullah/Geechee culture flourished on the islands off the South Carolina and Georgia coasts. Detail from a 1781 map of Florida, Georgia, and the Gulf. Note the incorrect identification of the Pacific Ocean. University of Texas, Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection.
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Afro-Indian Culture

Language was another reflection of the Black Seminoles' distinct, hybrid culture. Their dialect reflected strong ties to both the plantations and Africa, while delineating the maroons from their Indian allies. Black interpreters mastered the Hitchiti and Muskogee dialects, but their personal language remained Afro-Seminole, a variant of English that was strongly related to Gullah, the dialect of Sea Islanders along the Carolina and Georgia coast. Like Gullah, Afro-Seminole incorporated words from Spanish, English, and Muskogee, also Bantu and other African languages.*

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Sources: Hancock's The Texas Seminoles and Their Language summarizes his landmark research on Afro-Seminole. Also see Hancock's essay in Perspectives on American English. ©
Part 1, Early Years: Outline  l  Images

*Linguist Ian Hancock discovered the Gullah-Black Seminole linguistic connection in the 1970s. His research first suggested some of the rich historical ties between Black Seminoles and African refugees from the Sea Islands.

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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 - Early Years: 1832-1838
+ World at Birth
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Seminole Slavery
Living Conditions
Afro-Indian Culture
+ Encroaching America
+ A New Country
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion