Language was another reflection of the Black Seminoles'
distinct, hybrid culture. Their dialect reflected strong ties to both the plantations and Africa, while
delineating the maroons from their Indian allies. Black interpreters mastered the Hitchiti and Muskogee dialects, but their personal language remained Afro-Seminole, a variant of English that was strongly related to Gullah, the dialect of Sea Islanders along the Carolina and Georgia coast. Like Gullah, Afro-Seminole incorporated words from Spanish, English, and Muskogee, also Bantu and other African languages.*
Hancock's The Texas Seminoles and Their Language summarizes his landmark research on Afro-Seminole. Also see Hancock's essay in Perspectives on American
Part 1, Early Years: l
*Linguist Ian Hancock discovered the Gullah-Black Seminole linguistic connection in the 1970s. His research first suggested some of the rich historical ties between Black Seminoles and African refugees from the Sea Islands.