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Rebellion December 25, 1835 - April 4, 1838     
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Map of John Horse's major actions during the Second Seminole War
Map of John Horse's major actions during the Second Seminole War
Locations of John Horse's major actions during the Second Seminole War
Shows locations of John Horse's major actions during the Second Seminole War
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The Decision

Finally, John Horse had surrendered. A young warrior at the time of Dade's massacre, he had risen to become the most important black leader among the Seminoles. At least twice, the resistance might have died if not for his courage, persistence, and cunning. Ultimately, his actions forced Jesup's hand. More than any other leader, John Horse was responsible for the promise of freedom that ended the black rebellion.

That promise, as indicated, helped pave the way for the liberation of the southern slaves twenty-five years later. In this small but tangible way, John Horse contributed to the American legacy of freedom, which owes a lasting debt to the power of his rebellion.

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Part 2, War: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 - War: 1832-1838
+ Prelude to War
+ Revenge
+ Deceit
+ Liberty or Death
spacer spacer Captivity
Noble Savages
Resistance
Liberty or Death
Osceola's Death
Star of the Nation
Jesup's Proclamation
The Decision
Post-Script
Deportation
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion