Rebellion March 28, 1833     
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Abraham, from Orr's engraving published in 1848 in The Origin, Progress, and Conclusion of the Florida War by John T. Sprague.
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Creek Country

Given this history, it might seem inconceivable that Abraham and the six chiefs would sign an agreement binding the tribe to move west and incorporate with the Creeks. And yet they did -- or allegedly they did, for accusations of fraud rapidly surrounded the "Treaty of Fort Gibson." Historians have advanced a number of theories for how the agreement was signed: coercion, bribery, alteration of the treaty after the fact (which appears to have taken place). The truth may never be clear, but the reaction back in Florida was unambiguous.

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Sources: Hitchcock 79-81, Native American Treaty 172, Mahon 82.
Part 2, War: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 + Early Years: 1812-1832
 - War: 1832-1838
+ Prelude to War
Jackson's Rise
Payne's Landing
Creek Country
Seminole Outrage
Before the Storm
+ Revenge
+ Deceit
+ Liberty or Death
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion


Historical documents:

Treaty of Payne's Landing

Treaty of Fort Gibson