Rebellion 1812 - 1813     
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Castillo de San Marcos, early photograph
Castillo de San Marcos, the oldest maritime fort in the continental United States. Early nineteenth century photograph, exact date unknown. Florida Photographic Collection.
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The Spanish were hardly prepared to defend their own city. By 1812, their presence in Florida was feeble. During attacks on St. Augustine, Spaniards refused to engage in direct combat, taking refuge instead in their impenetrable fort, el Castillo de San Marcos.

Active defense was left to the free black militia of Mose, in concert with Seminole Indians. "Indeed, the principal strength of the garrison at St. Augustine consists of negroes," wrote the Governor of Georgia to Secretary of State Monroe. The black warriors were more than capable of defending the city. They drove the Patriots from St. Augustine. The Seminoles then sacked the Georgians at Fort Picolata, destroying their storehouses and stopping the offensive.

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Sources: Smith Plot 188-212, Porter Black 8-9, State Papers 169.
Part 1, Early Years: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 - Early Years: 1832-1838
+ World at Birth
+ Encroaching America
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Andrew Jackson
Negro Fort
First War
+ A New Country
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion