Rebellion 1822     
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A Seminole town, circa 1835
A Seminole town, circa 1835. Lithograph from the Gray & James series on the war, published in 1837.
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William Simmons describes a night in a Black Seminole home in 1822

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Simmons visited the Seminoles over the winter of 1822. Here, he describes his evening as a guest at the black settlement under Cudjoe:

"We, at last, arrived at the settlement; and I was lodged in a new and excellent house, which the Negroes had built to dance in on Christmas. It was constructed in the Indian manner, without nails -- the boards and shingles being lashed to the posts and rafters, by strips of oak, which last a long time. Here, under 'smoky rafters,' lulled by the sleep-compelling sound of an incessant shower, I enjoyed, upon a bed of deer skins, a night of refreshing rest."

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Sources: Simmons 44.
Part 1, Early Years: Outline  l  Images
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 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 - Early Years: 1832-1838
+ World at Birth
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Seminole Slavery
Living Conditions
Afro-Indian Culture
+ Encroaching America
+ A New Country
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion

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