Rebellion April 23, 1816     
spacerHomespacer spacerOverviewspacer spacerTrail Narrativespacer spacerHighlightsspacer spacerMapsspacer spacerResourcesspacer spacerImagesspacer spacer
Plan of Fort Gadsden on site of the Negro Fort
1816 plan of Fort Gadsden on the site of the Negro Fort.  National Archives.
View an image enlargement
Previous slide Next slide
Text of Jackson's ultimatum to the Spanish governor

Back to main trail

Jackson wrote to Governor Zuniga on April 23, 1816:

"I am charged by my Government to make known to you that a Negro fort, erected during our late war with Britain … is now occupied by upwards of two hundred and fifty Negroes, many of whom have been enticed from the service of their masters, citizens of the United States; all of whom are well-clothed and disciplined. Secret practices to inveigle Negroes from citizens of Georgia, as well as from the Cherokee and Creek nations of Indians, are still continued by this banditti and the hostile Creeks. This is a state of things which cannot fail to produce much injury to the neighboring settlements, and excite Irritations which eventually may endanger the peace of the Nation; and interrupt that good understanding which so happily exists between our Government.

"The principles of good faith which always insure good neighborhood between nations, require the immediate and prompt interference of the Spanish Authority to destroy or remove from our frontier this banditti, put an end to an evil of so serious a nature, and return to our citizens and friendly Indians inhabiting our territory those Negroes now in said fort…. I reflect that the conduct of this banditti is such as will not be tolerated by our government, and if not put down by Spanish authority, will compel us, in self defense, to destroy them."

Previous slidespacerspacer

Sources: Jackson 2: 241. ©
Part 1, Early Years: Outline  l  Images
spacer spacer
 Trail Narrative
 + Prologue
 + Background: 1693-1812
 - Early Years: 1832-1838
+ World at Birth
+ Encroaching America
spacer spacer Patriots
Andrew Jackson
Negro Fort
First War
+ A New Country
 + War: 1832-1838
 + Exile: 1838-1850
 + Freedom: 1850-1882
 + Legacy & Conclusion

Back to main trail >>