Rebellion Picture Tour: 1689 - 1882     
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Secret articles from the Treaty of New York, 1790

Secret Articles, Treaty of New York
Manuscript, 1790, National Archives.

The fugitive slaves of Florida were so prominently troublesome that in 1790 George Washington concluded one of the first treaties in U.S. history, the Treaty of New York, for the express purpose of enlisting Creek Indians to hunt down the black fugitives. The treaty failed, but over the next four decades a long list of government initiatives took aim at the Black Seminoles. Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, Andrew Jackson -- in all, 10 of first 12 U.S. presidents led policies dealing with the group.

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