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spacer Overview > Image reproduction

spacer General questions on image reproduction

Please read the copyright notice in full before consulting these additional notes.

In general, the images used on this Web site are not available for reproduction, except for the single copies downloaded to your computer when you are viewing the site.

A majority of the images on this site were obtained from archives and special collections, such as the Library of Congress, the Florida Photographic Collection, and the Smithsonian American Art Museum. If you would like copies of these images for any purpose other than the viewing of this Web site -- for instance, for your own Web site or for a publication -- you must contact the appropriate collection to obtain permission to use your own copy. Your use of that copy will be subject to the rules and restrictions of the supplying collection. In some cases, you will have to pay a use fee. Fees and permissions are legally enforced. They are also important, since they help archives maintain collections that are open to the public.

Unsanctioned use, by you, of images obtained on this Web site will constitute a violation of copyright.

Note that you may not reproduce images from this Web site even if they originally came from the public domain. While the original of an image may be from the public domain, rights to a copy of that image (such as the digital copies found on this Web site) remain with the person who made the copy, or with the archive that distributed the image.

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Can you use any images on this site?

Generally speaking, no. There are, however, two special cases:

Special Case No. 1: Students writing term papers

Under the guidelines of Fair Use, courts have found that students writing term papers and making class presentations may reproduce single copies of images from other sources, provided that they only use the image in an educational, non-commercial setting, and reproduce the image only for their immediate academic environment. (Students can show images to classmates and teachers, for example, but they can not place them on publicly available Web sites.)

Fair Use is a complex doctrine, and this site is not a legal primer. If you want to use images from this or any site under Fair Use, you should consult Web sites and guidelines on the topic. Several sites are listed under Web resources.

Students who use images for papers and presentations should properly credit the images, noting:

  • where they obtained the image (book, Web site, or other)
  • the copyright holder, OR,
  • the archive that distributes the image
  • date of the image
  • original creator.
Here are two sample credits for images taken from this site and used in a term paper or in a student presentation:

Example 1, an image that was scanned specifically for this site:

Credit/Caption: John Horse. Engraving by N. Orr, 1858. Source: Rebellion, www.johnhorse.com. Originally published in Joshua Reed Giddings' The Exiles of Florida (1858).



Example 2, an image that was obtained for this site from an outside collection:

Credit/Caption: Massacre of the Whites by the Indians and Blacks in Florida. Engraving by D.F. Blanchard, 1836. Source: Rebellion, www.johnhorse.com. Original from the Library of Congress, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, LC-USZ62-366.

Special Case No. 2: Print-ready public domain images offered on this site for free download

In order to promote knowledge of the Black Seminoles, I have made a limited number of public domain images available for free downloading at print-ready resolutions. These are all either 1) images that are freely available already from other online public resources, such as the Library of Congress and the Florida Photographic Collection, 2) images that I obtained from the Library of Congress which are clearly in the public domain (not all Library of Congress images are) and available for distribution, or 3) images scanned from public domain originals in my own personal collection. These print-ready images are available for any use, including commercial (that's the meaning of public domain); in return, please credit the source of the image with a link reference to this site and correct provenance information, which you will find accompanying each offered image. You may also contact me if your printing situation requires a higher resolution copy of one of these images, which I am generally happy to furnish with advance notice.

Public domain images available online from other sites

Except for the special cases noted above, in no case are images on this site freely available directly from the site. Some images, however, can be obtained for free online from collections that freely distribute public domain images. 

Even when you obtain an image for free, you are still responsible for using it appropriately, and investigating copyright and permissions as needed. Fortunately some sites, such as American Memory from the Library of Congress, make an effort to let visitors know when images are clear of restrictions. 

For a list of some sites that freely distribute public domain images, see Web resources. If you are interested in a particular image, it will not help to contact the producer of this site (although if you do, I will try to be helpful), simply because the site is in no way set up to be an image distribution service. In all cases, please contact the referring collection.

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What if no collection is listed with an image?

On this site, when the caption with an image does not list an archive or collection as a source, it means that the image was digitally copied specifically for the site, either from a legally available, public domain source, from the current copyright holder (with permission), or from a private collection (again, with permission). These digital copies are protected by the copyright of the site. You may not reproduce them, except for the Fair Use exceptions mentioned  above.

Also see: image sources.

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Picture tour: a summary of the story in 32 images.